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Iran

 


Capitale : Téhéran
Superficie : 1 635 000 km2
Monnaie : rial iranien (0,00009539 €)

Situation :

Moyen-Orient, entre d’une part, le golfe persique et la mer Caspienne , et de l’autre l’Irak et le Pakistan.

Superficie :

Totale: 1.648 million km² Classé 17e
Terre: 1.636 million km²
Eau: 12,000 km² Supérficie comparée
40 fois la Suisse, + 3 fois la France, + 7 fois le Royaume Uni

Frontières :

Totale: 5,440 km
pays riverains: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenie 35 km, Azerbaijan 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan 179 km, Irak 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turquie 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km

Coastline :

2,440 km; note - Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)


Climat :

mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast


Elevation extremes :


Le plus bas: Caspian Sea -28 m
Le plus élevé: le sommet de Damavand qui culmine à 5,671 m

Ressources naturelles :

pétrole, gas naturel, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Land use

terre arable: 8.72%
permanent crops: 1.39%
other: 89.89% (2001)

Irrigated land

75,620 km² (1998 est.).


Environment - current issues:

air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; wetland losses from drought; soil degradation (salination); inadequate supplies of potable water; water pollution from raw sewage and industrial waste; urbanization

Population:

68,017,860 (Estimation 2005), Classé 18e.
Densité : 41 hab./km2

Pyramide des âges:
0-14 years: 27.1% (male 9,465,475/female 8,973,828)
15-64 years: 68% (male 23,556,970/female 22,701,065)
65 years and over: 4.9% (male 1,637,512/female 1,683,010) (2005 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.86% (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 41.58 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 41.75 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 69.96 years
male: 68.58 years
female: 71.4 years (2005 est.)

Nationality:

Iranian (s), Iraniens

Ethnic groups:

Persian 51%, Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%
Religions:
Shi'a Muslim 89%, Sunni Muslim 9%, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i 2%

Languages:

Persans (51%), Azéris (24%), Gilakis et Mazandaranis (8%), Kurdes (7%), Arabes (3%), Baloutches (2%), Lours (2%), Turkmènes (2%), Qashqai, Arméniens, Juifs iraniens, Assyriens et autres

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79.4%
male: 85.6%
female: 73% (2003 est.)
Government Iran
Country name:
Iran

Type de régime:

Théocratie

Histoire mythique :

Shahnameh de Ferdowsi

Drapeau mytique:

Derafsh-e kawiani

Fête nationale:

Noruz (New Year's Day), 21 March


Iran est subdivisé en 30 provinces:
1. Téhéran 2. Qom 3. Markazi 4. Qazvin 5. Gilan 6. Ardebil 7. Zanjan
8. Azerbaijan-e-sharghi (de l'est) 9. Azerbaijan-e-gharbi (de l'ouest)
10. Kordestan 11. Hamedan 12. Kermanshahan 13. Ilam 14. Lorestan
15.Khuzestan16.TchaharMahaal-o-Bakhtiari
17. Kohkiluyeh-Boyerahmad
18. Bushehr 19. Fars 20. Hormozgan
21. Sistan-o-Balouchestn 22. Kerman 23. Yazd 24. Esfahan
25. Semnan 26. Mazandaran 27. Golestan 28. Khorasan-e-shomali (du Nord) 29. Khorasan-e-razavi 30. Khorasan-e-jonubi (du sud)

Les provinces (Ostan) sont gouvernés par une ville centrale, généralement la plus grande ville du province. Le gouverneur du province (Ostandar) est nommé par le ministre de l'Intérieur.Depuis 2004, le province du Khorassan est divisé en trois provinces, augmentant le nombre des provinces du 28 à 30.

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